Ariel , [30] The Kural text was authored by Thiruvalluvar lit. Saint Valluvar. No other authentic pre-colonial texts have been found to support any legends about the life of Valluvar. Starting around early 19th century, numerous inconsistent legends on Valluvar in various Indian languages and English were published. Vaiyapuri Pillai derived his name from "valluvan" a Paraiyar caste of royal drummers and theorized that he was "the chief of the proclaiming boys analogous to a trumpet-major of an army". Along with various versions of his birth circumstances, many state he went to a mountain and met the legendary Agastya and other sages.

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The first translation of the Kural text appeared in Malayalam in CE under the title Tirukkural Bhasha by an unknown author. It was a prose rendering of the entire Kural, written closely to the spoken Malayalam of that time. The Kural text has enjoyed a universal appeal right from antiquity owing to its secular and non-denominational nature that it suited the sensibilities of all.

This marked the beginning of wider translations of the Kural text. However, only the first two books of the Kural text, namely, virtue and wealth , were translated by Beschi, who considered translating the book on love inappropriate for a Christian missionary. Around , an unknown author made the first French translation, which went unnoticed. Here again, only parts of the work was translated.

In , his Latin translation of the Kural text, along with commentaries in Simple Tamil, was posthumously published. Kindersley in when he translated a select couplets of the Kural.

This was followed by another incomplete attempt by Francis Whyte Ellis in , who translated only couplets—69 in verse and 51 in prose. Drew, however, translated only couplets. The remaining portions were translated by John Lazarus , a native missionary, thus providing the first complete English translation.

In , George Uglow Pope published the first complete English translation by a single author, which brought the Kural text to a wide audience of the western world. By , the Kural had been translated to more than 42 languages, with 57 versions available in English.

Along with the Bible and the Quran , the Kural remains one of the most translated works in the world. Thus, no translation can perfectly reflect the true nature of any given couplet of the Kural unless read and understood in its original Tamil form. The Latin translation by Father Beshi , for instance, contains several such mistranslations noticed by modern scholars.

According to V. The concept of rebirth or many births for the same soul is contrary to Christian principle and belief".


Thirukkural online



Thirukural with English meaning – Athigaram 1


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