Tajar Wolbachia endosymbiont of Linognathus vituli Bilateria bilaterally symmetrical animals. The ADW Team gratefully acknowledges their support. Subsequently, numbers of lice on the withers declined, while increasing at sites on the head. Host antibody responses to crude nymph antigens, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISAwere generally evident within weeks of infestation.

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Download 36MB Preview Abstract The literature relating to the effects of pediculosis on cattle, particularly classification and general biology, lifecycles, distribution of louse eggs on host pelage, feeding mechanisms, seasonal changes affecting host pelage, effect on host blood profile, effect on host liveweight gains, control methods, effects of host grooming and effect on host skin, have been reviewed.

Blood profiles and liveweight gains were followed in two experiments using housed calves. Blood sampling was carried out every 14 days along with the weights of the animals being noted. The blood samples were used to determine red blood cell count, white blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, reticulocyte counts, eosinophil counts, total serum protein determination and total serum albumin determination.

Lice counts were also conducted on the blood sampling days. This consisted of parting the hair five times on the shoulders of each calf and counting the number of lice revealed at each hair parting. In experiment A there were significantly greater values in the louse infested calves for haemoglobin concentration 10 weeks of age , lymphocyte count 7 weeks and monocyte counts 30 weeks with significantly lower values for monocyte counts 6 weeks , serum albumin determination 20 weeks and weight 8 weeks.

For experiment B significantly greater values for the infested animals were observed for leucocyte counts 7 and 8 weeks , monocyte counts 8 weeks , reticulocyte counts 7 weeks and total serum protein 22 weeks with significantly lower values for lymphocyte counts 24 weeks and erythrocyte counts 12 weeks.

However, all of the significant results for both experiments fell within the accepted normal range observed by Schalm, Jain and Carroll for normal animals.

There was only one occasion when weight gain was significantly lower in the infested calves which occurred at 8 weeks in experiment A. The lice population was found to be slight throughout the duration of the experiments with only a few Isolated Instances of moderate or severe counts being noted.

Due to the infestation being slight there was no overall significant effect on the blood profile or liveweight gains in the calves infested with L. The blood content of lice was investigated using 51Cr, 59Fe and I radioactive isotopes. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals. Blood and plasma were prepared from each of the blood samples for radioactivity determination. Packed cell volume was also measured from each of the blood samples with serum albumin, protein and iron determinations also being made.

All faeces produced over a 24 hour period were weighed and random duplicate 8 10 g samples taken for radioactivity determination. Urine produced over a 24 hour period was also collected and weighed with random, duplicate 2 samples taken for radioactivity determination.

On the last two days of the experiment lice were manually removed from each infested animal, weighed and their radioactivity determined. Using these radioisotopes circulating red cell volumes and plasma volumes were not significantly different between infested and control calves so ensuring that the total blood volume in infested calves was not significantly different from control animals. Abstract shortened by ProQuest.

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Life history parameters of the cattle long-nosed sucking louse, Linognathus vituli.



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