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Show Context Citation Context In the absence of any additional information, it is known that DFAs cannot be identified by an algorithm in finite time, i. However, if an upper bound n on the number of states of M is provided, then a canonical DFA may be found by querying sufficiently many strings so that at most one canonical acceptor of size less tha A robot with k-bit memory has to explore a tree whose nodes are unlabeled and edge ports are locally labeled at each node.

The robot has no a priori knowledge of the topology of the tree or of its size, and its aim is to traverse all the edges. While O log bits of memory suce to explore any tre While O log bits of memory suce to explore any tree of maximum degree if stopping is not required, we show that bounded memory is not sucient to explore with stop all trees of bounded degree indeed nde log log n bits of memory are needed for some such trees of size n.

For the more demanding task requiring to stop at the starting node after completing exploration, we show a sharper lower bound nd n on required memory size, and present an algorithm to accomplish this task with O log n -bit memory, for all n-node trees. The proof uses the digraph combination lock see, e. Definition 1. The combination lock Ld,n is a regular digraph of out-degree d, and order n. The n nodes u0, u1,. A formal methodology is presented for the systematic evolution of modular Standard ML programs from specifications by means of verified refinement steps, in the framework of the Extended ML specification language.

Program development proceeds via a sequence of design modular decomposition , codi Program development proceeds via a sequence of design modular decomposition , coding and refinement steps.

For each of these three kinds of steps, conditions are given which ensure the correctness of the result. Interfaces are only required to match up to behavioural equivalence, which is seen as vital to the use of data abstraction in program development. Copyright c fl by D. Sannella and A. All rights reserved. An extended abstract of this paper will appear in Proc.

We study the problem of uniquely identifying the initial state of a given finite-state machine from among a set of possible choices, based on the input-output behavior.

Equivalently, given a set of machines, the problem is to design a test that distinguishes among them. We consider nondeterministic We consider nondeterministic machines as well as probabilistic machines. In both cases, we show that it is Pspace-complete to decide whether there is a preset distinguishing strategy i. The probabilistic testing is closely related to probabilistic games, or Markov Decision Processes, with incomplete information. We also provide optimal bounds for deciding whether such games have strategies winning with probability 1.

Dictionaries, user manuals, encyclopedias, and annual reports are typical examples of structured documents. Structured documents have an internal, usually hierarchical, organization that can be used, for instance, to help in retrieving information from the documents and in transforming documents int Structured documents have an internal, usually hierarchical, organization that can be used, for instance, to help in retrieving information from the documents and in transforming documents into another form.

The document structure is typically represented by a context-free or regular grammar. Many structured documents, however, lack the grammar: the structure of individual documents is known but the general structure of the document class is not available.

In this thesis we present a technique for generating a grammar describing the structure of a given structured document instances. The technique is based on ideas from machine learning. It forms first finite-state automata describing the given instances completely. These automata Additionally, M L has useful states only.

An automaton M is called canonical if and only if M is isomorphic to the canonical automaton for the language of M. It is often useful for a robot to construct a spatial representation of its environment from experiments and observations, in other words, to learn a map of its environment by exploration.

In addition, robots, like people, make occasional errors in perceiving the spatial features of their environmen In addition, robots, like people, make occasional errors in perceiving the spatial features of their environments. We formulate map learning as the problem of inferring from noisy observations the structure of a reduced deterministic finite automaton.

We assume that the automaton to be learned has a distinguishing sequence. We assume no errors in the state transition function. Kieras, David E. Meyer , "

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## Gedanken-Experiments on Sequential Machines

Clocked sequential systems are a restricted form of Moore machine where the state changes only when the global clock signal changes. Typically the current state is stored in flip-flops , and a global clock signal is connected to the "clock" input of the flip-flops. Clocked sequential systems are one way to solve metastability problems. A typical electronic Moore machine includes a combinational logic chain to decode the current state into the outputs lambda. The instant the current state changes, those changes ripple through that chain, and almost instantaneously the output gets updated.

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