Charlier had in effect already written several Westerns, both comics and illustrated short prose stories, in the period for various previous magazines. One such short entailed the text comic " Cochise " in Jeannot magazine, July , dealing with the historical " Bascom Affair ", which six years later would become the apotheosis of the first Blueberry story, "Fort Navajo". Furthermore, Charlier had already visited the South-West of the United States in , resulting in several Native-American themed educational Pilote editorials. He took the opportunity to re- discover the American West, returning to France with a strong urge to write a western. He already had outlines in mind, but asked me to come up with a name. He suggested a couple of names, which sounded not bad, but I wanted something softer for this rough and basic character.
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Charlier had in effect already written several Westerns, both comics and illustrated short prose stories, in the period for various previous magazines. One such short entailed the text comic " Cochise " in Jeannot magazine, July , dealing with the historical " Bascom Affair ", which six years later would become the apotheosis of the first Blueberry story, "Fort Navajo".
Furthermore, Charlier had already visited the South-West of the United States in , resulting in several Native-American themed educational Pilote editorials. He took the opportunity to re- discover the American West, returning to France with a strong urge to write a western.
He already had outlines in mind, but asked me to come up with a name. He suggested a couple of names, which sounded not bad, but I wanted something softer for this rough and basic character. It was then that I saw that somebody had signed with the name "Blueberry" in Geographic Magazine , which was lying opened in front of me, purely by coincident. That was the right choice, and Charlier liked the name as well.
That came about this way: To have Blueberry come across as a non-conformist, I described him right from the start as uncombed, disheveled, unshaven, broken nosed, etc. Initially titled "Fort Navajo", the story grew into 46 pages over the following issues.
In the first album, Blueberry was called Steve. I forgot that first name and then I named him Mike. So, in order to get things straight, I coined him Mike Steve Blueberry eventually; This kind of forgetfulness happens to me often.
However, in one instance that had an unexpected side effect; when Charlier killed off the Native-American lieutenant Crowe in the fifth and last installment of the story-arc, "La piste des Navajos" "Trail of the Navajo" , the editorial offices of Pilote received many angry letters from readers accusing Charlier of murdering a sympathetic protagonist.
Taken aback, Charlier later stated, "It was too late to do anything about it, it was done. A strange experience, Giraud in particular took it very hard. Actually, and by his own admission, Charlier had originally written McClure as a temporary, minor background character, but Giraud was so taken with the character that he asked Charlier to expand his role in the series, and which stands out as the earliest known instance of Giraud exercising influence on the scripts of his senior colleague.
In French, Blueberry has firstly seen pre-publication in Pilote issue , 31 October — issue , 23 August and fr:Super Pocket Pilote issue 1, 1 July — issue 9, 19 October  from publisher Dargaud, the parent and main publisher of Blueberry, with Giraud frequently creating original Blueberry art for the magazine covers and illustrations for editorials, aside from creating on occasion summarizing, introduction plates, none of which reprinted in the original book editions.
In order to give these releases a more "mature" image, the books were from the start executed as hard cover editions. Favorably received and though not being the first, the hard cover format became the norm in France definitively, where henceforth all comic albums were executed in the format — becoming indeed generally accepted as a mature part of French culture eventually  — , whereas the vast majority of the other European countries continued to employ the soft cover format for decades to come, somewhat reflecting the status comic books had in their societies at the time.
After "Fort Navajo", the collection was suspended and each comic hero hitherto featured therein, spun off in book series of their own, including Blueberry or rather Fort Navajo, une Aventure du Lieutenant Blueberry as it was then still coined.
After Charlier had died on 10 July , Giraud, aside from completing "Arizona Love" on his own, wrote and drew five albums, from "Mister Blueberry" to "Dust" constituting the OK Corral story arc , until his own death in Additionally, Giraud also scripted the intermezzo series Marshal Blueberry , but had no creative input for the La Jeunesse de Blueberry prequel series, after the first three, original volumes.
The mere fact that serious newspapers and magazines were by then vying for the opportunity to run Blueberry in their publications first aside from the above-mentioned publications, the newspaper France-Soir had already run the first two outings of the revitalized La Jeunesse de Blueberry series in and — see below , was testament to the status Blueberry and its creator s had by then attained in French society. Royalties conflict — [ edit ] "That was a coincidence all right.
Already in , Charlier made his displeasure known in this regard, when he had "Angel Face" pre-published in Nouveau Tintin of industry competitor Le Lombard, the very first time a Blueberry adventure was not serialized in Pilote — nor would it ever be again in hindsight. The magazine was forced to drop the announcement page it had prepared for the story. Then Giraud left on his own accord.
While Charlier had no influence on this whatsoever, it did serve a purpose as far as he was concerned. Giraud had left Blueberry on a cliff-hanger with "Angel Face", resulting in an insatiable demand for more, putting the pressure on Dargaud. Whenever Georges Dargaud asked Charlier for a next Blueberry adventure, repeatedly, Charlier was now able to respond that he was "devoid of inspiration". For Giraud the conflict was actually a godsend, "At that moment Charlier and I also had a financial conflict with Dargaud which came at the exact right time, because it provided me with an alibi [to leave]".
Very eager to return to Los Angeles as Jodorowsky requested his presence again, Giraud — who had returned to France for his other work during one of the lulls in the Dune production — greatly accelerated his work on "Angel Face", then underway, breaking his "absolute record speed-drawing", as he had coined it, and sheared off weeks from its originally intended completion date. Upon his return, Charlier took one look at the pages completed in his absence, and continued where Giraud had left off without further much ado.
It was while he was working on two documentaries on the Mexican Revolution that he gained inspiration for his below-mentioned Les Gringos Western comic series, which started its run in at Koralle. Yet, I think one can not discern its difficult birth; there are good scenes, pages I really poured heart and soul into. It is true that [the art for] "Le hors-la-loi" "The Outlaw" had been quite weak, but "Angel Face" made up for it". But it is no longer the same. On that occasion Charlier, owning a law degree,  stipulated an exemption clause for magazine pre- publications of his own co- creations.
Yet, Georges Dargaud refused to take the bait and the creators subsequently put forward the Jim Cutlass western comic as a last ditch effort to spell out to Dargaud that the creators had other options. Dargaud still would not budge. It was then that it became clear to Charlier, that he was left with no other option than to leave, and this he did taking all his other co-creations with him, to wit Redbeard and Tanguy et Laverdure , which, while not as popular as Blueberry, were steady money making properties for Dargaud nonetheless.
The choice for the German publisher was made for their very ambitious international expansion strategy they had in place at that time. In Koralle was on the verge of bankruptcy, and a scheme was devised to stave off this fate; international expansion. In the European comics world that was a rather novel idea at the time and Koralle did expand beyond the German border into large parts of Europe with variants of their main publication Zack magazine, with the revived Blueberry as its flagship, accompanied with comic book releases.
The most prominent of the latter was Hermann Huppen with his new post-apocalyptic Western Jeremiah for which he had abandoned that other famed s Franco-Belgian Western, Comanche written by Greg , second only in renown after Blueberry at the time. As a token of goodwill, a relieved Springer, as they now could turn over the current contractual obligations without much further ado, even allowed the French-language version of Zack, Super As, to run for a few issues longer in order to allow as many series as possible to complete their magazine run, which included "La longue marche".
Novedi was established in November with its seat in Brussels, Belgium. Part of their strategy was to forego on a magazine of their own and instead release titles directly in album format, as it was noticed that the serialized comic magazine format had already started to wane in Europe as a format and actually one of the main reasons for Axel Springer to pull the plug on Koralle , resulting in the advantage of not having to incur the expenses of maintaining magazine editorial offices.
Any still existing comic magazine elsewhere, willing to publish serialized comic series after the initial book releases, was merely considered an added bonus. As impromptu publisher, EDIBD published around two dozen album titles, including "La longue marche", before turning the copyrights of these over to Novedi,  which started publishing themselves in Hachette incidentally, later acquired a special, one-time only license from Dargaud to reissue the entirety of the Blueberry series in as the 52 volume La Collection Blueberry anthology, each volume augmented with a six-page illustrated editorial.
The s saw three additions to the main series completing the Rehabilitation story arc as well as four new titles in the newly created La Jeunesse de Blueberry series. Nevertheless, despite the two Blueberry incarnations and Jeremiah being the top selling series for the publisher, it appeared that the financial base was too narrow for even a publisher the modest size of Novedi, as the publisher went out of business in , after having published approximately album titles, and despite having taken over the book publications for France themselves as well in the latter half of the decade.
Death of a creator [ edit ] "I have twenty completed pages, the rest consists of annotations and loose ideas I was not quite on board with the development of the story yet, we still had not decided upon anything.
There were some great ideas, which needed to be finalized. By all accounts Charlier had been a workaholic throughout his career, working simultaneously on as much as a dozen projects at any given time, steadily increasing his workload as he grew older. His heart condition had already troubled him in his later years and his death, while sudden, was not entirely a surprise. There were always seven to eight scenarios underway. His life was a true path of self-destruction. You should have seen him working at his desk!
Six months before his passing, I advised him to calm down. Very artistically, he replied: No, I have chosen this! However, as he recognized quite early on that Blueberry occupied a special place in his body of work, he later made sure that only his Blueberry artists were provided with scripts in a timely fashion.
Due to his intimate twenty-five year familiarity with both the series and its writer, it was a foregone conclusion that Giraud would from then on take on the scripting of the main series as well, especially since it was already agreed upon in the "contracts signed with Jean-Michel" that "the survivor would take over the series".
Some of the first pages he showed us then were radically different from the ones ultimately published in the album later on. I did not had the time to read the scripts for those pages he had shown us, but I know that Jean redid several pages entirely anew, before the album was eventually released". Giraud stated that the series had lost its "father", and that the "mother needed time to mourn".
Yet, Giraud undertook no further action himself, partly because he was still residing in the United States, too preoccupied with his own projects and the wrapping up of his affairs over there before his return to France and thus too busy to be engaged in secret negotiations with Novedi ,  and partly because his marriage to his first wife Claudine was in the early stages of falling apart at the time.
It turned out that Philippe was actually picking up where his father had left off. Shortly after he had established Alpen and unbeknownst to Giraud, Giger was already approached by Charlier Sr. The veteran Charlier had already sensed the writings on the wall at Novedi and discussed plans with Giger to have all his comic creations moved over to the new publisher, and to this end had already arranged his old friend fr:Guy Vidal from his Pilote days to be hired as editor-in-chief at the new publisher, incidentally in the process doing exactly what his son had accused Novedi of.
We were shareholders with the Charlier family," stated Giger, confirming the preliminary dealings with the author in his final year. Ironically, it was Philippe Charlier, among others, who indirectly conceded the point when he accused Giraud of wanting "to settle scores" with Charlier Sr. However, while Jeremiah has remained with Dupuis ever since, for again unknown reasons the cooperation with Blueberry did not seem to pan out either.
Return to the parent publisher —present [ edit ] "Everything was bought back by Dargaud, halfway through [Marshal Blueberry]. It was not that bad; At Dargaud, they are more active on the editorial level. During the entire time I was at Humanos, I had not received a single call to start a new project. I profited from it If Blueberry had remained with Humanos, there still would not have been a new album!
At Dargaud, the late Guy Vidal became a true series editor-in-chief, active, pugnacious, adhering to continuous series. I do the best I can. I do recognize that there are some surprising issues at the script or drawing level, but it has the merit of not being routine! The for Dargaud joyous occasion of now having acquired the copyrights of all Blueberry comic incarnations, was reason enough to ask Giraud — now serving as the sole main series artist — to embark on a new story-arc, which eventually resulted in the OK Corral cycle, the last one of the main series as it turned out to be.
Aside from this, Dargaud made use of the opportunity to clean up the by then muddied release chronology, by formalizing the establishment of the three series and restarting the album numbering for each in reprint runs. Concurrently, all international licenses were renegotiated.
It quickly evolved into an international release as it has as of become translated into German, Dutch, Spanish, Danish, Finnish and Swedish. English translations[ edit ] The first known English translation of Blueberry was that of the first title "Fort Navajo", and appeared 18 months after its original French magazine publication and before its very first book publication in September However, the growing popularity of the comic elsewhere in Europe from onward  notwithstanding, the Netherlands included, "Fort Navajo" remained until the only Blueberry title translated in English.
While Egmont completed the publication of the then existing series in whole for the latter two language areas, publication of the English titles already ceased after volume 4. Mentioning the name Jean Giraud did not cause any of the present pencillers, colorists or storyboard artists to even bat an eye. It was incredible! In practice this means that Dargaud can not use this art at will for their own later publications, such as the anthology releases,  without coming to some sort of legal and financial arrangement with the copyright holders — i.
Giraud himself in the vast majority of cases as of , his heirs — , as Dargaud licensees have to do as well on individual basis, and of which the short story "Three Black Birds" is the most glaring one see below. Dead set on having all available Blueberry material included in his version, he found himself frequently frustrated in this regard on more than one occasion.
He stated as late as , "As things now stand, it is highly unlikely that the vast majority of this material will be included, as Dargaud does not own the copyrights. And it is only the Dargaud copyrighted material we can use for the Blueberry-Chroniken, as we have experienced to our dismay on several occasions," referring among others, aside from "Three Black Birds", to the covers for Epic as well. Excepting the Mojo Press release, no additional Blueberry comics have been published in English since , and, again excepting the Mojo Press release, no English Blueberry reprints have seen the light of day either, contrary to his other work as "Moebius".
COLECCION TENIENTE BLUEBERRY
Son las historias escritas y dibujadas en solitario por Jean Giraud. Dos ciclos redondos. Blueberry es llamado por un viejo conocido, el general Dodge, que ahora trabaja en la Union Pacific para que negocie con los indios el paso de las obras por su territorio. Tras enormes esfuerzos todo parece volver a la calma hasta que llega cierto general con la cabeza poblada de una imponente melena rubia.
La contraportada demuestra por el mismo precio la fuerza y las carencias iniciales de Gir. En este caso Morris versiona una de Blueberry. Mike duda, mira al suelo, ve una flor y encuentra una apellido. El planteamiento de Finley al principio tiene una factura romantica, al final, la historia y las circunstancias le transforman en un mercenario al mejor postor.