Garden locations Culture Winter hardy to USDA Zones where it is best grown in organically rich, well-drained soils in full sun to part shade. Intolerant of frost. It is primarily native to rainforests in the Guianas French Guiana, Suriname and Guyana in northeastern South America, but has been widely planted in a number of different tropical to semi-tropical areas around the world. On windy days, the fruits often bang against each other on the tree creating a sound reportedly resembling a cannonade. Each fruit contains seeds which are embedded in an ill-smelling, soft red pulp which turns bluish-green when exposed to air. Each fruit typically takes 1 year or more to mature.

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THAI: Sala-lankaa. Plant snippet - In India, considered a sacred tree. The flower has been proclaimed as the State Flower by the government of Puducherry, Union Territory of india.

Leaves are alternate, oblong-obovate, up to 20 centimeters long, entire to slightly serrate and hairy on the veins beneath. Inflorescence is racemose, arising from the trunk and other large branches. Flowers are reddish with a yellow tinge on the outside, fragrant, with stamens borne on an overarching androphore.

Fruit is a large, reddish-brown globose, 15 to 24 centimeters, with a woody capsule, and each containing to seeds. Distribution - As ornamental trees along highways and in parks. Constituents - Flowers yield an alipathic hydrocarbon and stigmasterol. It was negative for amino acids, flavonoids, tannin, phlobatannins, aromatic acids and xanthoproteins. Linalool, benzyl alcohol, terpineol, hexadecanoic acid and the cis- and trans-furan linalool oxides were the most abundant compounds of the total aqueous extract fraction.

Linalool and its oxides, terpineol, benzoic acid and 7-methoxy-coumarin were identified as the pleasant odor-active compounds, and benzothiazole as an off-flavor compound. Linalool, 2-ethylhexanol and limonene were the major compounds found in the headspace fraction. Parts used Uses Edibility - Fruits are edible, but only occasionally eaten because of the unpleasant odor of the white flesh.

Infusion of flowers used as immunobooster. Leaves, roots and bark used by Shamans of South America for treatment of malaria. The phenolic and flavonoid fractions showed strong antioxidant potential. Results showed Couroupita guianensis exhibited nociceptive activity mediated, in part, by opioid and cholinergic systems and the nitric oxide pathway. Moderate activity was observed against all test organisms.

The alcoholic extract was the most effect in an activity comparable with Piperazine citrate. Results suggest promising skin care properties. Compound 3, a triterpene alcohol, showed potential anti-depressant activity using tail-suspension test and despair swim test in mice. Results showed significant dose dependent reduction in spontaneous motor activity with no effect on motor coordination.

There was also reduction of onset and duration of pentobarbitone induced hypnosis. Results suggest effects on both central and peripheral nervous system. Results also showed strong antiradical activity in the DPPH assay. Activity was found against E. It showed potential activity against Staphylococcus aureus NCIM and can be utilized for preparation of wound healing ointments.

Results showed low insecticidal effects of B. Results suggest C. Results showed high reducing capacity and significant antibacterial activity, and suggests C. Results indicate strong in vitro antioxidant activity, which may be due to its high phenolic content. Also, there was a high level of stimulation of HSF proliferation and significant absorption of UV radiation.

Results showed an anti-inflammatory activity partly due to reduction of cell migration and inhibition of cytokines and inflammatory mediators production.

Results showed analgesic activity equipotent to paracetamol and anti-inflammatory activity equipotent to indomethacin. Both extracts at higher concentration showed significant reduction in immobility in tail suspension and forced swim model of depression comparable to imipramine. Results showed dose-dependent reduction in spontaneous motor activity with no effect on motor coordination by rotarod testing.

There was also reduction in onset and duration of pentobarbitone induced hypnosis. Results suggest central and peripheral nervous system effects. Results showed good antimicrobial and antibiofilm forming activities; however it showed low antimycobacterial activity. Study reports on the development of an herbal syrup from Couroupita guainensis. Couroupita guianensis, silver ion and silver based compounds are highly toxic to microorganisms showing a strong biocidal effect against microbial species Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, and E.

Study also showed enhanced DPPH scavenging activity. Study reported on the extraction of indigo from CG fruit and application of the crude extract on cotton fabric. Thin layer chromatography yielded three pigments: violet, blue, and pink with Rf values of 0. Dyeing of cotton fabric with crude dye powder gave comparable fastness properties vis-a-vis synthetic indigo.

Study evaluated the anti-quorum sensing efficacy of Couroupita guainensis against Enterobacter aerogenes, estimated with reference to QS Biomonitoring strain Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antiulcerogenic property may be due to its antisecretory activity. Isatin derivatives are known to have cytotoxicity against human carcinoma cell lines with a potential as chemotherapeutic agent against cancer.

In this study, isatin from the active fraction showed antioxidant activity with EC50 value of The isatin-treated cells underwent apoptosis and DNA fragmentation. Maximum activity was noted in the hexane extract with the least LC50 and LC90 values.

Silver nanoparticles were synthesized from these parts. All extracts, except for aqueous extracts, exhibited good antioxidant and antibacterial activity. Use of the flower extract resulted in more efficient synthesis of AgNPs compared to leaf and fruit extracts. Flower mediated nanoparticles showed better results attributed to certain phytochemical compounds responsible for the reduction and capping of silver nanoparticles.

Most activity was seen in the petrol fraction of flowers,fruit and stem bark, and ethyl acetate fraction of flowers and stem and root bark, and dichlormethane fractions of stem and root bark. In vitro antioxidant assays showed the aqueous extract and formulated AuNPs possess extraordinary antioxidant properties.

Histocompatibility assay showed the safe nature of the gold nanoparticles. Results showed antiurolithiatic activity probably mediated through the inhibition of calcium oxalate cyrstallization and, in addition, its free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Results showed maximum feeding deterrency of Results suggest potential for use in pest control programs.


Couroupita guianensis

THAI: Sala-lankaa. Plant snippet - In India, considered a sacred tree. The flower has been proclaimed as the State Flower by the government of Puducherry, Union Territory of india. Leaves are alternate, oblong-obovate, up to 20 centimeters long, entire to slightly serrate and hairy on the veins beneath.


Cannonball tree-Couroupita guianensis

The plant extract is used to treat stomach aches and colds. The juice extracted from the leaves is used to treat skin diseases. In South America, the Shamans used tree parts to treat malaria. The pulp is used to disinfect wounds. Young leaves are used to provide relief from toothache. The bark is used to cure colds. The extracts of the tree parts is used to cure pain, hypertension, tumors and inflammation.


Some trees flower profusely until the entire trunk is covered with racemes. One tree can hold as many as flowers per day. The flowers are strongly scented, and are especially fragrant at night [8] and in the early morning. There are two areas of stamens : a ring of stamens at the center, and an arrangement of stamens that have been modified into a hood. Smaller fruits may contain about 65 seeds, while large ones can hold as many as The fruits take up to a year to mature in most areas, sometimes as long as 18 months.

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