Su madre era armenia y su padre, un pastor y carpintero de origen griego Ioannas Giorgiades. Por su origen mixto, hablaba varios idiomas: ruso , turco , griego y armenio. Hay tres caminos: el camino del fakir , el del monje y el del Yogi. El cuarto camino nunca empieza en un nivel inferior al de un buen padre de familia, porque requiere la responsabilidad de una persona que vive en el mundo y se enfrenta a los quehaceres cotidianos sin la necesidad de abandonar el mundo, como sucede en los otros tres caminos. Luego, en , el grupo la Sra. Alfred R.
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Some authors such as James Moore argue for Although the dates of his birth vary, the year of is inscribed in a plate on the gravemarker in the cemetery of Avon, Seine-et-Marne , France, where his body was buried.
It contained extensive grassy plateau-steppe and high mountains, and was inhabited by a multi-ethnic and multi-confessional population that had a history of respect for travelling mystics and holy men, and for religious syncretism and conversion.
Both the city of Kars and the surrounding territory were home to an extremely diverse population: although part of the Armenian Plateau , Kars Oblast was home to Armenians, Russians, Caucasus Greeks, Georgians, Turks, Kurds and smaller numbers of Christian communities from eastern and central Europe such as Caucasus Germans , Estonians and Russian sectarian communities like the Molokans , Doukhobors , Pryguny, and Subbotniki.
Gurdjieff makes particular mention of the Yazidi community. The young Gurdjieff avidly read Russian-language scientific literature. He was never forthcoming about the source of his teachings. The only account of his wanderings appears in his book Meetings with Remarkable Men. Most commentators  leave his background unexplained, and it is not generally considered to be a reliable or straightforward autobiography. Bennett researched his sources extensively and suggested that these characters were symbolic of the three types of people to whom Gurdjieff referred: No.
He asserts that he has encounters with dervishes , fakirs and descendants of the extinct Essenes , whose teaching had been, he said, conserved at a monastery in Sarmoung. The book also has an overarching quest narrative involving a map of "pre-sand Egypt" and culminating in an encounter with the " Sarmoung Brotherhood ". His only autobiographical writing concerning this period is Herald of Coming Good.
In it, he mentions acting as hypnotherapist specialising in the cure of addictions and using people as guinea pigs  for his methods.
It is also speculated that during his travels, he was engaged in a certain amount of political activity, as part of The Great Game.
In , Gurdjieff accepted P. Ouspensky as a pupil, and in , he accepted the composer Thomas de Hartmann and his wife, Olga, as students. Then, he had about 30 pupils. Ouspensky already had a reputation as a writer on mystical subjects and had conducted his own, ultimately disappointing, search for wisdom in the East. The Fourth Way "system" taught during this period was complex and metaphysical, partly expressed in scientific terminology.
In the midst of revolutionary upheaval in Russia, Gurdjieff left Petrograd in to return to his family home in Alexandropol. During the Bolshevik Revolution , he set up temporary study communities in Essentuki in the Caucasus , then in Tuapse , Maikop , Sochi and Poti , all on the Black Sea coast of southern Russia, where he worked intensively with many of his Russian pupils.
Gurdjieff said, "Begin in Russia, End in Russia". The two men were to have a very ambivalent relationship for decades to come. As Essentuki became more and more threatened by civil war, Gurdjieff fabricated a newspaper story announcing his forthcoming "scientific expedition" to "Mount Induc". They travelled by train to Maikop, where hostilities delayed them for three weeks. In spring , Gurdjieff met the artist Alexandre de Salzmann and his wife Jeanne and accepted them as pupils.
Gurdjieff concentrated on his still unstaged ballet, The Struggle of the Magicians. Thomas de Hartmann who had made his debut years ago, before Czar Nicholas II of Russia , worked on the music for the ballet, and Olga Ivanovna Hinzenberg who years later wed the American architect Frank Lloyd Wright , practiced the ballet dances.
In late May , when political conditions in Georgia changed and the old order was crumbling, his party travelled to Batumi on the Black Sea coast and then traveled by ship to Istanbul.
In Istanbul, Gurdjieff also met his future pupil Capt. John G. Bennett , then head of British Military Intelligence in Constantinople , who describes his impression of Gurdjieff as follows: It was there that I first met Gurdjieff in the autumn of , and no surroundings could have been more appropriate. In Gurdjieff, East and West do not just meet. Their difference is annihilated in a world outlook which knows no distinctions of race or creed.
This was my first, and has remained one of my strongest impressions. A Greek from the Caucasus, he spoke Turkish with an accent of unexpected purity, the accent that one associates with those born and bred in the narrow circle of the Imperial Court. His appearance was striking enough even in Turkey, where one saw many unusual types. His head was shaven, immense black moustache, eyes which at one moment seemed very pale and at another almost black. New pupils included C. Gurdjieff was putting into practice his teaching that people need to develop physically, emotionally and intellectually, hence the mixture of lectures, music, dance, and manual work.
He was raging at Orage, who stood impassively, and very pale, framed in one of the windows This happened so quickly that I do not believe that Mr. Orage even noticed the break in the rhythm. In , while driving alone from Paris to Fontainebleau, he had a near-fatal car accident.
Nursed by his wife and mother, he made a slow and painful recovery against medical expectation. Still convalescent, he formally "disbanded" his institute on 26 August in fact, he dispersed only his "less dedicated" pupils , which he explained as an undertaking "in the future, under the pretext of different worthy reasons, to remove from my eyesight all those who by this or that make my life too comfortable".
The book was deliberately convoluted and obscure, forcing the reader to "work" to find its meaning. He also composed it according to his own principles, writing in noisy cafes to force a greater effort of concentration. Ouspensky attended her funeral. Some have interpreted that in terms of his following the Malamatiyya technique of the Sufis, he was deliberately attracting disapproval. Diana Huebert was a regular member of the Chicago group, and documented the several visits Gurdjieff made to the group in and in her memoirs on the man.
Gurdjieff constituted a new teaching group in Paris. Known as The Rope, it was composed of only women, many of them writers, and several lesbians. Gurdjieff became acquainted with Gertrude Stein through Rope members, but she was never a follower.
He had completed the first two parts of the planned trilogy but only started on the Third Series. In , he settled in a flat at 6, Rue des Colonels-Renard in Paris, where he was to stay for the rest of his life. In , his brother Dmitry died, and The Rope disbanded. Visitors recalled the pantry, stocked with an extraordinary collection of eastern delicacies, which served as his inner sanctum, and the suppers he held with elaborate toasts to "idiots"  in vodka and cognac.
Having cut a physically impressive figure for many years, he was now distinctly paunchy. His personal business enterprises he had intermittently been a dealer in oriental rugs and carpets for much of his life, among other activities enabled him to offer charitable relief to neighbours who had been affected by the difficult circumstances of the war, and it also brought him to the attention of the authorities, leading to a night in the cells.
Final years[ edit ] After the war, Gurdjieff tried to reconnect with his former pupils. Ouspensky was reluctant, but after his death October , his widow advised his remaining pupils to see Gurdjieff in Paris.
Bennett also visited from England, the first meeting for 25 years. They discovered he was alive only after the death of Ouspensky, who had not told them that Gurdjieff was still living. Hands and Murphy worked on the typing and retyping of the forthcoming book All and Everything.
Gurdjieff suffered a second car accident in but again made an unexpected recovery. Even this is not enough to express it. It was a dead man, a corpse, that came out of the car; and yet it walked. I was shivering like someone who sees a ghost. Must make new". Then, he turned to Bennett, smiling: "Tonight you come dinner.
I must make body work". As he spoke, a great spasm of pain shook his body and blood gushed from an ear. Bennett thought: "He has a cerebral haemorrhage. He will kill himself if he continues to force his body to move". But then he reflected: "He has to do all this.
If he allows his body to stop moving, he will die. He has power over his body". He also visited the famous prehistoric cave paintings at Lascaux , giving his interpretation of their significance to his pupils.
His funeral took place at the St. He is buried in the cemetery at Avon near Fontainebleau. He asserted that people in their typical state function as unconscious automatons , but that a person can "wake up" and become a different sort of human being altogether. As a result, humans were failing to realize the truths of ancient teachings and were instead becoming more and more like automatons, susceptible to control from outside and increasingly capable of otherwise unthinkable acts of mass psychosis such as World War I.
At best, the various surviving sects and schools could provide only a one-sided development, which did not result in a fully integrated human being. According to Gurdjieff, only one dimension of the three dimensions of the person—namely, either the emotions, or the physical body or the mind—tends to develop in such schools and sects, and generally at the expense of the other faculties or centers, as Gurdjieff called them.
As a result, these paths fail to produce a properly balanced human being. Furthermore, anyone wishing to undertake any of the traditional paths to spiritual knowledge which Gurdjieff reduced to three—namely the path of the fakir , the path of the monk , and the path of the yogi were required to renounce life in the world.
Gurdjieff thus developed a "Fourth Way"  which would be amenable to the requirements of modern people living modern lives in Europe and America. In parallel with other spiritual traditions, Gurdjieff taught that a person must expend considerable effort to effect the transformation that leads to awakening. The effort that is put into practice Gurdjieff referred to as "The Work" or "Work on oneself". Working on oneself is not so difficult as wishing to work, taking the decision.
He taught that higher levels of consciousness, higher bodies,  inner growth and development are real possibilities that nonetheless require conscious work to achieve. He believed that such texts possess meanings very different from those commonly attributed to them. According to his teaching, this inner development of oneself is the beginning of a possible further process of change, the aim of which is to transform people into what Gurdjieff believed they ought to be.
To provide conditions in which inner attention could be exercised more intensively, Gurdjieff also taught his pupils "sacred dances" or "movements", later known as the Gurdjieff movements , which they performed together as a group. He also left a body of music, inspired by what he heard in visits to remote monasteries and other places, written for piano in collaboration with one of his pupils, Thomas de Hartmann.
Gurdjieff also used various exercises, such as the "Stop" exercise, to prompt self-observation in his students. Other shocks to help awaken his pupils from constant daydreaming were always possible at any moment.
George Gurdjieff, biografía y mandamientos